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Antithesis (an-tith'-e-sis) is the juxtaposition of contrasting or opposite ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction. “The evil that men do lives after them, / The good is oft interred with their bones;” Julius Caesar, 3.2.82. Similar to alliosis, which presents contrasting ideas as alternatives or choices.

Antithesis is an example of:
Comparison, Parallelism

The Architecture of Sonnet and Song

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Let’s begin by stipulating that Ira Gershwin is not William Shakespeare. However, despite the gulf that separates their talents, they share some writing techniques that are useful tools for aspiring writers. For example, Shakespeare’s sonnet, That Time of Year, and Gershwin’s song, They Can’t Take That Away from Me*, are variations on a common template,
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Seduction or Harassment?

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Shakespeare delights in the seduction ceremonies of bright men with even brighter women. These dialogues, whether between adolescents like Romeo and Juliet, more mature characters like Henry V and Princess Katherine, or seasoned adults like the widow Lady Grey and the sexual harasser King Edward, in this scene (3HenryVI 3.2.36), give Shakespeare opportunities to employ dazzling webworks of rhetorical exchanges.
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Sexual Extortion

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In Measure for Measure (2.4.95), Angelo, the classic sexual harasser, adopts a method of sexual extortion similar to King Edward’s in Henry VI Part 3 (3.2.36).  Both men begin with oblique insinuations about their desires, which can be innocently misread. When the women, Isabella in Measure for Measure and Lady Grey in Henry VI,
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Now is the winter of our discontent

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NowHyperbaton is the winter of our discontentMetaphor
Made glorious summerMetaphor by this son of York,Paronomasia
And all the clouds that louredMetaphor upon our houseMetonymy
In the deep bosom of the ocean MetaphorburiedHyperbaton & Ellipsis.
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Let us sit and mock the good huswife Fortune

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Let us sit and mock the good housewife Fortune
from her wheel, that her gifts may henceforth be
bestowed equally.Personification

I would we could do so, for her benefits are
mightily misplaced, and the bountiful blind woman
doth most mistake in her gifts to women.
‘Tis true,
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Act 1
Scene 2
Line 31

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Connected Notes:
Status of Women, Blind Fortune

I am sorry that the Duke of Buckingham Is run in your displeasure

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Queen Katherine, to the King
I am sorry that the Duke of Buckingham
Is run in your displeasure.

When these so noble benefits shall prove
Not well disposed, the mind growing once corrupt,
They turn to vicious forms ten times more ugly
Than ever they were fair.

It grieves many.
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Act 1
Scene 2
Line 125

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Not for that neither. Here’s the pang that pinches

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Not for that neither.Anapodoton Here’s the pang that pinches:
His Highness having lived so long with herAlliteration
, and she
So good a lady that no tongue could ever
Pronounce dishonor of her—Parenthesesby my life,
She never knew harm-doing!—O, now,

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Now, Ursula, when Beatrice doth come

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Now, Ursula, when Beatrice doth come,
As we do trace this alley up and down,
Our talk must only be of Benedick.
When I do name him, let it be thy part
To praise him more than ever man did merit.

What fire is in mine ears?

My talk to thee must be how Benedick
Is sick in love with Beatrice. Of this matter
Is little Cupid’s crafty arrow made,
That only wounds by hearsay.Allusion
Now begin,
For look where Beatrice like a lapwing runs
Close by the ground, to hear our conference.Simile

 Enter Beatrice, who hides in the bower.
Ursula, aside to Hero
The pleasant’st angling is to see the fish
Cut with her Metaphorgolden oars the silver stream
And greedily devour the treacherous bait.
So angle we for Beatrice, who even now
Is couchèd in the woodbine coverture.Simile

Fear you not my part of the dialogue.
Hero, aside to Ursula
Then go we near her, that her ear lose nothing
Of the false sweet bait that we lay for it.—Metaphor
 They walk near the bower.
No, truly, Ursula, she is too disdainful.
I know her spirits are as coy and wild
As haggards of the rock.Simile

But are you sure
That Benedick loves Beatrice so entirely?
So says the Prince and my new-trothèd lord.
And did they bid you tell her of it, madam?
They did entreat me to acquaint her of it,
But I persuaded them, if they loved Benedick,
To wish him wrestle with affectionMetaphor
And never to let Beatrice know of it.
Why did you so? Doth not the gentleman
Deserve as full as fortunate a bed
As ever Beatrice shall couch upon?Metonymy

O god of love! I know he doth deserve
As much as may be yielded to a man,Apostrophe

But Nature never framed a woman’s heart
Of prouder stuff than that of Beatrice.
Disdain and scorn ride sparkling in her eyes,
Misprizing what they look on, and her wit
Values itself so highly that to her
All matter else seems weak.Personification & Synecdoches
She cannot love,
Nor take no shape nor project of affection,
She is so self-endeared.
Sure, I think so,
And therefore certainly it were not good
She knew his love, lest she’ll make sport at it.
Why, you speak truth. I never yet saw man,
How wise, how noble, young, how rarely featured,Diacope
But she would spell him backward. If fair-faced,
She would swear the gentleman should be her sister;
If black, why, Nature, drawing of an antic,
Made a foul blot; if tall, a lance ill-headed;
If low, an agate very vilely cut;
If speaking, why, a vane blown with all winds;
If silent, why, a block moved with none.Anaphora & Metaphors

So turns she every man the wrong side out,Metaphor
And never gives to truth and virtue that
Which simpleness and merit purchaseth.
Sure, sure,Epizeuxis such carping is not commendable.
No, not to be so odd and from all fashions
As Beatrice is cannot be commendable.
But who dare tell her so? If I should speak,
She would mock me into air. O, she would laugh me
Out of myself, press me to death with wit.Adynaton

Therefore let Benedick, like covered fire,
Consume away in sighs, waste inwardly.
It were a better death than die with mocks,
Which is as bad as die with tickling.Similes

Yet tell her of it. Hear what she will say.
No, rather I will go to Benedick
And counsel him to fight against his passion;
And truly I’ll devise some honest slanders
To stain my cousin with. One doth not know
How much an ill word may empoison liking.
O, do not do your cousin such a wrong!
She cannot be so much without true judgment,
Having so swift and excellent a wit
As she is prized to have, as to refuse
So rare a gentleman as Signior Benedick.
He is the only man of Italy,
Always excepted my dear Claudio.
I pray you be not angry with me, madam,
Speaking my fancy: Signior Benedick,
For shape, for bearing, argument, and valor,
Goes foremost in report through Italy.
Indeed, he hath an excellent good name.Metonymy
His excellence did earn it ere he had it.
When are you married, madam?
Why, every day, tomorrow.Anapodoton & Antithesis, Oxymoron or Paradox Come, go in.
I’ll show thee some attires and have thy counsel
Which is the best to furnish me tomorrow.
 They move away from the bower.
Ursula, aside to Hero
She’s limed, I warrant you. We have caught her, madam.Metaphor
Hero, aside to Ursula
If it prove so, then loving goes by haps;
Some Cupid kills with arrows, some with traps.Allusion
 Hero and Ursula exit.
Beatrice, coming forward
What fire is in mine ears?Metaphor Can this be true?
Stand I condemned for pride and scorn so much?
Contempt, farewell, and maiden pride, adieu!Apostrophe
No glory lives behind the back of such.
And Benedick, love on; I will requite thee,Apostrophe
Taming my wild heart to thy loving hand.Synecdoche
If thou dost love, my kindness shall incite thee
To bind our loves up in a holy band.
For others say thou dost deserve, and I
Believe it better than reportingly.
 She exits

Now tell me, madam, do you love your children?

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King Edward
Now tell me, madam, do you love your children?
Lady Grey
Ay, full as dearly as I love myself.
Anadiplosis & EpistropheKing Edward
And would you not do much to do them good?
Lady Grey
To do them good I would sustain some harm.
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Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears!

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Friends, Romans, countrymenExordium, lend me your earsSynecdoche!
I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.Antithesis
The evil that men do lives after them,
The good is oft interred with their bonesAntithesis
So let it be with Caesar.
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