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Figures of Speech by Name

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Scholars differ on the definitions of many figures of speech and distinctions between some figures are very fine. This list may change over time. These figures of speech can be searched below by scrolling down or by using “Quick Links” at right. They can also be searched here by type.

Acyrologia

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An unintended use of the wrong word often by someone attempting to sound educated or erudite. “O, villain! Thou wilt be condemned into everlasting redemption for this!” Much Ado About Nothing, 4.2.38. The modern term for this figure is Malapropism.

Acyrologia is an example of:
Substitution, Word Play

Adnominatio

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Assigning to a proper name its literal or homophonic meaning. Falstaff: Is thy name Mouldy? Mouldy: Yea, an't please you. Falstaff: ‘Tis the more time thou wert used. Shallow: Ha, ha, ha! most excellent, i' faith! Things that are mouldy lack use: very singular good! in faith, well said, Sir John, very well said.” Henry IV Pt2, 3.2.96. Related to Paronomasia and Polyptoton.

Adnominatio is an example of:
Word Play

Adynaton

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An extreme form of Hyperbole in which the exaggeration could not possibly happen in reality. “Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood Clean from my hand?” Macbeth, 2.2.78

Adynaton is an example of:
Addition

Alliosis

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Alternatives or choices in a balanced and parallel structure. Such a structure may result in a false dichotomy but it can create a cleverly balanced and artistic sentence. “Better it were a brother died at once, / Than that a sister, by redeeming him, / Should die forever.” Measure for Measure, 2.4.95. Similar to Antithesis, which presents contrasting or opposite ideas but not as alternatives.

Alliosis is an example of:
Comparison, Parallelism

Alliteration

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Repetition of an initial, stressed consonant sound for two or more words. “When to the sessions of sweet silent thought…” Sonnet 30. Alliteration is different from Consonance, which is the repetition of a consonant sound on stressed and unstressed syllables that are not always at the beginnings of words. The repetition of “s” sounds, alliterative or consonant, is also called sibilance.

Alliteration is an example of:
Repetition

Allusion

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A brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary or political significance. “I'll drown more sailors than the mermaid shall; / I'll slay more gazers than the basilisk;  /I'll play the orator as well as Nestor…” Henry VI Pt 3, 3.2.126

Allusion is an example of:
Comparison

Ambage

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Excessive words are used in an ambiguous or indirect manner. “But be contented when that fell arrest / Without all bail shall carry me away, / My life hath in this line some interest, / Which for memorial still with thee shall stay.” Sonnet 74. Ambage is similar to Circumlocution, in that both use excessive words and are indirect — a Circumlocution circles around the meaning and an Ambage creates an ambiguity.  Also see Periphrasis.

Ambage is an example of:
Addition

Ambiguity

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Expression that has more than one meaning. Puns usually draw on the ambiguity of the speaker's intent. “Ask for me tomorrow, and you shall find me a grave man.” Romeo and Juliet, 3.1.93

Ambiguity is an example of:
Addition

Amplification

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An elaborate decoration an argument to suggest copiousness or intensify emotional impact. “Ay, my good lord—“my lord,” I should say rather. / ’Tis sin to flatter; “good” was little better: / “Good Gloucester” and “good devil” were alike, / And both preposterous: therefore, not “good lord.” Henry VI Pt3, 5.6.1.

Amplification is an example of:
Addition

Anadiplosis

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The repetition of a word or phrase that ends one clause and begins the next. “Though Nature hath given us wit to flout at Fortune, hath not Fortune sent in this fool to cut off the argument?” As You Like It, 1.2.31. Extended Anadiplosis is called Gradatio.

Anadiplosis is an example of:
Arrangement, Repetition

Analogy

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Comparison between two situations for the purpose of explanation or clarification. “What's in a name? That which we call a rose / By any other word would smell as sweet; / So Romeo would, were he not Romeo call'd.” Romeo and Juliet, 2.2.36.

Analogy is an example of:
Comparison

Anaphora

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Repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses. “O, cursèd be the hand that made these holes; / Cursèd the heart that had the heart to do it; / Cursèd the blood that let this blood from hence.” Richard III, 1.2.1 Contrast with Epistrophe.

Anaphora is an example of:
Repetition

Anapodoton

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Deliberate sentence fragment. “No, not an oath! If not the face of men, / The sufferance of our souls, the time's abuse— / If these be motives weak, break off betimes, / And every man hence to his idle bed;” Julius Caesar, 2.1.124

Anapodoton is an example of:
Omission

Anastrophe

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Type of Hyperbaton in which usually only a single word is misplaced or reversed from it expected order. Most often the adjective appears after the noun when we expect to find it before the noun. “Plots have I laid, inductions dangerous, / By drunken prophecies, libels, and dreams, / To set my brother Clarence and the King / In deadly hate.” Richard III, 1.1.1.

Anastrophe is an example of:
Arrangement

Antanaclasis

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Repetition of a word with a shift of meaning. “In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, / From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, / Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean.” Romeo and Juliet. 1.1.1

Antanaclasis is an example of:
Repetition

Anthimeria

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Substitution of one part of speech for another. A word is used as a different part of speech than it usually is. “When the rain came to wet me once and the wind to make me chatter, when the thunder would not peace at my bidding,” King Lear, 4.6.114.

Anthimeria is an example of:
Substitution

Anthropomorphism

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Portraying an animal with human abilities, e.g. speaking. Differs from Personification, which rhetorically portrays inanimate objects or abstractions with having human characteristics. “When in that moment, so it came to pass, / Titania waked and straightway loved an ass.” Midsummer Night's Dream, 3.2.1

Anthropomorphism is an example of:
Substitution

Antimetabole

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Repetition of words or phrases in an inverted or reverse order in which the phrases suggest opposing meanings. “How / much better is it to weep at joy than to joy at weeping!” Much Ado About Nothing. 1.1.13. Antimetabole is a type of Chiasmus, which is a similar inversion but of actual words whose meanings are not necessarily opposite. Chiasmus is similar to Epanados, which also repeats the terms after presenting them.

Antimetabole is an example of:
Comparison, Parallelism, Repetition

Antithesis

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Juxtaposition of contrasting or opposite ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction. “The evil that men do lives after them, / The good is oft interred with their bones;” Julius Caesar, 3.2.82. Similar to Alliosis, which presents contrasting ideas as alternatives or choices.

Antithesis is an example of:
Comparison, Parallelism

Aphaearesis

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Deletion a syllable or letter from the beginning of a word to create a new word. “O thou dull god, why liest thou with the vile / In loathsome beds, and leav'st the kingly couch / A watch-case or a common ‘larum-bell?” Henry IV Pt2, 3.1.3. Also see Syncope, the removal of a syllable or letter from the middle of a word, and Apocope, the deletion of a syllable or letter from the end of a word.

Aphaearesis is an example of:
Omission

Aphesis

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Loss of an unstressed initial vowel. “And so far blameless proves my enterprise / That I have ’nointed an Athenian’s eyes.” Midsummer Night's Dream, 3.2.368See Apocope, in which the last syllable is dropped; and Syncope, in which the middle syllable is dropped.

Aphesis is an example of:
Omission

Apocope

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Deletion of a syllable or letter from the end of a word. “With Clifford and the haught Northumberland…” Henry VI Pt3, 2.1.153. See Aphaearesis, the deletion of an unstressed initial vowel, and Syncope, the deletion of a middle consonant or syllable.

Apocope is an example of:
Omission

Aporia

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An expression of insincere doubt, in which the writer or speaker pretends not to know a key piece of information or not to understand a key connection. “They that have done this deed are honorable. / What private griefs they have, alas, I know not, / That made them do it.” Julius Caesar, 3.2.82.

Aporia is an example of:
Omission

Aposiopesis

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Sudden breaking off of an utterance before it is completed, usually in moments of emotion. “O judgment! Thou art fled to brutish beasts, / And men have lost their reason. Bear with me, / My heart is in the coffin there with Caesar, / And I must pause till it come back to me…” Julius Caesar, 3.2.82.

Aposiopesis is an example of:
Omission

Apostrophe

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Breaking off discourse to address an absent person, or to an inanimate object or abstraction, as if personified (not to be confused with the punctuation mark). “Age, thou art sham'd! / Rome, thou hast lost the breed of noble bloods! Julius Caesar. 1.2.142.

Apostrophe is an example of:
Omission

Apposition

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Interrupting a sentence with a word or phrase to add descriptive content. “The winds did sing it to me, and the thunder, / That deep and dreadful organ pipe, pronounced / The name of Prosper.” The Tempest 3.3.114. Similar to a Preposition but Appositions are less interruptive, more like clauses providing clarifying or additional information.

Apposition is an example of:
Addition

Assonance

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Repetition or similarity of the same internal vowel sound in words of close proximity. “Beauty’s ensign yet / Is crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks.” Romeo and Juliet. 5.3.73

Assonance is an example of:
Repetition

Asteismus

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Witty joke where a word or phrase is turned on the user. “Katherine: What is your crest? A coxcomb? Petruchio: A combless cock, so Kate will be my hen. Katherine: No cock of mine. You crow too like a craven.” Taming of the Shrew. 2.1.209.

Asteismus is an example of:
Addition, Word Play

Asyndeton

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Omission of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words. “Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils, Shrunk to this little measure?” Julius Caesar, 3.1.164. See Polysyndeton, which repeats the same conjunction between words or phrases in a series.

Asyndeton is an example of:
Omission

Bathos

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The least important item in a series appears anticlimactically in a place where the reader expects something grand or dramatic. It is usually used humorously. “I will live in thy heart, die in thy lap, and be buried in thy eyes; and moreover I will go with thee to thy uncle's.” Much Ado About Nothing. 5.2.95. See Climax.

Bathos is an example of:
Arrangement

Caesura

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A break or pause in the rhythm of a line. The pause adds a dramatic effect. The pauses can be initial, medial or terminal, and may follow masculine or feminine stresses. “To be, || or not to be, || that is the question. ||Hamlet. 3.1.64

Caesura is an example of:
Omission

Catachresis

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An implied or mixed metaphor, in which usually a verb or adjective are misapplied to the noun they reference. “Lent him our terror, dressed him with our love,” Measure for Measure. 1.1.3. Related to Hyperbole and Synaesthesia.

Catachresis is an example of:
Arrangement, Substitution

Chiasmus

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Repetition of two corresponding phrases arranged in a parallel inverse order. The second half is balanced against the first but with the parts reversed. “Fair is foul, and foul is fair” Macbeth 1.1.1.  Related to Antimetabole, in which the two pairs suggest opposing or opposite meanings. Also similar to Epanados, which also repeats the terms after presenting them.

Chiasmus is an example of:
Parallelism, Repetition

Circumlocution

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Using more words than necessary, or evasive words, in order to circle around a meaning and to avoid being direct. “Then weigh what loss your honor may sustain / If with too credent ear you list his songs / Or lose your heart or your chaste treasure open / To his unmastered importunity. / Fear it, Ophelia; fear it, my dear sister.” Hamlet. 1.3.33. See also Ambage, Amplification, Euphemism, and Periphrasis.

Circumlocution is an example of:
Addition

Climax

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Arrangement of items in order of increasing importance, (also called Auxesis and Crescendo). “If thou would have such a one, take me. And take me, take a soldier. Take a soldier, take a king. And what say’st thou then to my love?” Henry V, 5.2.138. A variation is Bathos, in which items in as series build to an anticlimax.

Climax is an example of:
Arrangement

Conceit

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An elaborate and extended figure of speech, involving metaphors, similes, imagery, etc. “Thou counterfeits a bark, a sea, a wind. / For still thy eyes, which I may call the sea, / Do ebb and flow with tears; the bark thy body is, / Sailing in this salt flood; the winds thy sighs, / Who, raging with thy tears and they with them, / Without a sudden calm, will overset / Thy tempest-tossèd body.” Romeo and Juliet, 3.5.117

Conceit is an example of:
Addition

Consonance

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Repetition of a consonant sound, but unlike Alliteration the consonant does not always occur on the stressed syllable at the beginning of the word. “Whether ’tis nobler in the mind to suffer / The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, / Or to take arms against a sea of troubles / And, by opposing, end them.” Hamlet, 3.1.64. The “s” sounds occur at the beginning, middle and ends of words, both stressed and unstressed. The repetition of an “s” sound in lines like this is also called sibilance.

Consonance is an example of:
Repetition

Diacope

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Close repetition of words broken by one or two intervening words. “Done like a Frenchman: turn and turn again.” Henry VI Pt. 1, 3.3.17.

Diacope is an example of:
Repetition

Dichotomy

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A contrast between two things that are represented as being opposed or opposite, e.g, good and evil, black and white, thought and action, etc. “So foul and fair a day I have not seen.” Macbeth,1.3.39

Dichotomy is an example of:
Comparison

Ellipsis

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Omission of one or more words, which are assumed by the listener or reader. Omitting a word implied by the previous clause. “If to do were as easy as to know what were good to do, chapels had been churches, and poor men's cottages princes' palaces.” Merchant of Venice, 1.2.1

Ellipsis is an example of:
Omission

Enallage

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Intentionally using a different gender, person, case, number, or tense when another is expected to characterize a speaker or to create a memorable phrase. “This dream of mine— / Being now awake, I’ll queen it no inch farther, / But milk my ewes and weep.” Winter's Tale, 4.4.490.

Enallage is an example of:
Substitution

Enthymeme

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An argument in which a premise is omitted but implied, or which bases a conclusion on the truth of its contrary. “Marked you his words? He would not take the crown; / Therefore ’tis certain he was not ambitious.” Julius Caesar, 3.2.82

Enthymeme is an example of:
Omission

Epanados

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Repetition of the chief points in a discourse, especially in reverse order of that in which they were previously treated. “Mine eye and heart are at a mortal war / How to divide the conquest of thy sight. / Mine eye my heart thy picture’s sight would bar, / My heart mine eye the freedom of that right. / My heart doth plead that thou in him dost lie, ” Sonnet 46. It is a type of Chiasmus, which is the inversion of the verbal structure of phrases using the same words. Also similar to Antimetabole, in which the two phrases are not just inverted but suggest opposing meanings.

Epanados is an example of:
Parallelism, Repetition

Epanalepsis

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Repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause. Repetition of words after intervening words for emphasis, or the repetition of words at beginning and end of line, phrase, clause, or sentence. “Romans, countrymen, and lovers, hear me for my cause, and be silent, that you may hear. Believe me for mine honor, and have respect to mine honor, that you may believe.” Julius Caesar, 3.2.14

Epanalepsis is an example of:
Repetition

Epenthesis

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Adding an extra syllable or letters in the middle of a word (also called Infixation). “I have but with a cursitory eye / O’erglanced the articles.” Henry V, 5.2.69

Epenthesis is an example of:
Addition

Epimone

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Repetition of a phrase or question; dwelling on a point. “Remember thee? / Ay, thou poor ghost, whiles memory holds a seat / In this distracted globe. Remember thee?” Hamlet, 1.5.99.

Epimone is an example of:
Repetition

Epistrophe

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Repetition of a word or phrase at the end of successive clauses, lines, or sentences. “Is it possible he should know what he is, and be that he is?” All's Well That Ends Well, 4.1.45

Epistrophe is an example of:
Repetition

Epithet

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Noun-adjective combo as a means for amplification or further description, epithets can be semantically redundant or unusual. They sometimes become nicknames. “A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life,” Romeo and Juliet, 1.P.1. Also see Transferred Epithet.

Epithet is an example of:
Addition

Epizeuxis

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Repetition of a single word without intervening words. “O horror, horror, horror! / Tongue nor heart cannot conceive nor name thee! Macbeth, 2.3.73.

Epizeuxis is an example of:
Repetition

Erotema

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Classical term for a Rhetorical Question.

Erotema is an example of:
Substitution

Euphemism

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Substitution of an inoffensive term for one considered offensively explicit.

Euphemism is an example of:
Addition, Substitution

Exordium

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Introduction to a speech to catch attention of the listeners. “Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears! I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.” Julius Caesar, 3.2.82

Exordium is an example of:
Addition

Gradatio

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Gradatio is an extended form of Anadiplosis. Each clause or phrase ends with a word that starts the next clause or phrase in ascending order, leading to a climax. “My conscience hath a thousand several tongues, / And every tongue brings in a several tale, / And every tale condemns me for a villain.” Richard III, 5.3.189.

Gradatio is an example of:
Arrangement

Hendiadys

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The expression of a single idea by two nouns connected with “and” rather than a noun modified by an adjective. “And thy commandment all alone shall live / Within the book and volume of my brain.” Hamlet, 1.5.99.

Hendiadys is an example of:
Addition

Hypallage

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Also called a Transferred Epithet.

Hypallage is an example of:
Arrangement, Substitution

Hyperbaton

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Altering of normal or expected word order, or separation of words that belong together. “Some rise by sin, and some by virtue fall.” Measure for Measure, 2.1.41.

Hyperbaton is an example of:
Arrangement

Hyperbole

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Exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heightened effect. “He is the bluntest wooer in Christendom.” Henry VI Pt 3, 3.2.36.

Hyperbole is an example of:
Addition

Hysteron-Proteron

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A type of Hyperbaton in which the disorder is chronological, i.e., something that should happen happen second, happens first. “Th’ Antoniad, the Egyptian admiral, / With all their sixty, fly and turn the rudder.” Antony and Cleopatra, 3.10.1. Using Anastrophe in a way that creates a Catachresis; an impossible ordering on the literal level.

Hysteron-Proteron is an example of:
Arrangement

Irony

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Use of words to convey the opposite of their literal meaning. “Prodigious birth of love it is to me / That I must love a loathèd enemy.” Romeo and Juliet, 1.5.152

Irony is an example of:
Comparison, Substitution

Isocolon

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Isocolon is a generic term for two or more clauses of equal length and parallel syntax and rhythm. When there are more than two, the figure can be more specifically named (though they are not in the quotes on this website) tricolons, tetracolons, etc. “My gorgeous palace for a hermitage, / My gay apparel for an almsman’s gown, / My figured goblets for a dish of wood, / My scepter for a palmer’s walking-staff, / My subjects for a pair of carvèd saints.” Richard II, 3.3.148. This quote from Richard II strings five clauses of parallel syntax in sequence and, because the clauses all begin with he same word, this is also an example of Anaphora.

Isocolon is an example of:
Arrangement, Parallelism, Repetition

Litotes

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An understatement in which an affirmative is expressed by negating its opposite. “He hath not failed to pester us with message.” Hamlet, 1.2.1

Litotes is an example of:
Comparison, Substitution

Malapropism

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A modern term for the classical rhetorical figure Acyrologia, a malapropism is confused use of words in which an appropriate word is replaced by a similar-sounding but often ludicrously inappropriate meaning. Malapropism is a neologismA new, deliberately invented word. inspired by the name of the character Mrs. Malaprop (which is an abbreviated portmanteauA neologism created by combining two words. for mal-appropriate) in Richard Sheridan's The Rivals, 1775. For examples in Shakespeare, see Acyrologia.

Malapropism is an example of:
Substitution, Word Play

Metaphor

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Implied comparison between two unlike things. “Lo, in these windows that let forth thy life / I pour the helpless balm of my poor eyes.” Richard III, 1.2.1

Metaphor is an example of:
Comparison

Metaplasmus

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Metaplasmus (or metaplasm) is a generic term for a number of figures of speech that change the spelling of words by either adding or deleting letters or syllables. Shakespeare often used these figures to accommodate the meter of his lines. Sometimes he creates dialect. See Prosthesis (adding to beginning), Epenthesis (adding to middle), Proparalepsis (adding to end), Aphaearesis (deleting from beginning), Syncope (deleting from middle), Apocope (deleting from end).

Metaplasmus is an example of:
Addition, Omission

Metonymy

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Metonymy is a type of metaphor that substitutes a related attribute for what is meant. If someone asks how many plates there are going to be at dinner, they're asking about the number of guests. Plates are not parts of the guests, they're related to dinner guests. This is different from synecdoche, in which a part of a person or thing refers to the whole, or vice versa. In “Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown,” “head” is a synecdoche for the whole person of the king while “crown” is a metonymy for the responsibilities of the monarchy.

Metonymy is an example of:
Substitution

Neologism

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A neologism is a deliberately created new word. “…heaven and earth together demonstrated / Unto our climatures and countrymen.”  Antony and Cleopatra, 1.1.124. Here Shakespeare created a portmanteau in which he merged “climate” with “temperature.” Sometimes Shakespeare used an existing word but gave it a new meaning, e.g. “bedroom” meaning the room in a bed, not the room with a bed in it. Shakespeare is credited with creating many neologisms, some obsolete and some still in use. However, scholarly research continues to reveal that many words previously attributed to him were already in use.  See also Acyrologia and Malapropism, which are unintentionally misused words, and Metaplasmus, which is a generic term for different types of misspelled words.

Neologism is an example of:
Addition

Onomatopoeia

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Use of words to imitate natural sounds. “Bow-wow. / Hark, hark! I hear / The strain of strutting chanticleer / Cry cock-a-diddle-dow.” The Tempest, 1.2.452

Onomatopoeia is an example of:
Substitution

Oxymoron

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Incongruous or contradictory terms appear side by side.

Oxymoron is an example of:
Comparison

Paradox

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Statement that seems to contradict itself but is nevertheless true.

Paradox is an example of:
Comparison

Paralepsis

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Emphasizing a point by seeming to pass over it.

Paralepsis is an example of:
Omission

Parenthesis

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Insertion of a word or clause in a position that interrupts the normal syntactic flow of the sentence. “But he, his own affections' counsellor, / Is to himself—I will not say how true, / But to himself so secret and so close, / So far from sounding and discovery, / As is the bud bit with an envious worm.” Romeo and Juliet, 1.1.118. Similar to Apposition but a Parenthesis are more interruptive, less like a clause and more like speech.

Parison

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Paronomasia

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Word play, especially involving words with similar sounds but more than one meaning. “Now is the winter or our discontent / Made glorious summer by this sun of York…” Richard III, 1.1.1. Related to Adnominatio and Polyptoton.

Paronomasia is an example of:
Substitution, Word Play

Pathos

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Use of language, examples, diction, or images to create an emotional reaction in the reader. The most common types are anger at a social injustice, sympathy for another's misfortune, or laughter at a humorous or illogical state of affairs.

Periphrasis

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The use of a somewhat elaborate description for what is normally a common word, phrase or proper name — or of a proper name, e.g., “Venus” for a description, i.e, “beautiful and seductive.” “Most sacrilegious murder hath broke ope / The Lord’s anointed temple and stole thence / The life o’ th’ building.” Macbeth, 2.3.73. A type of Circumlocution — excessive words are used in a roundabout manner; also see Ambage — excessive words used to create ambiguity or misdirection.

Periphrasis is an example of:
Addition, Substitution

Perseverantia

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Repetition of a certain phrase in a speech or monologue for emphasis.

Personification

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An inanimate object or abstraction is endowed rhetorically with human qualities or abilities. “Nor shall Death brag thou wand'rest in his shade,” Sonnet 18. Differs from Anthropomorphism, which portrays animals as having human abilities such as speaking.

Personification is an example of:
Substitution

Polyptoton

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Word play for words derived from the same root or cognate. Repeating words in different case forms. “Love is not love / Which alters when it alteration finds, / Or bends with the remover to remove.” Sonnet 116. Related to Adnominatio and Paronomasia.

Polyptoton is an example of:
Repetition, Word Play

Polysyndeton

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The repetition of conjunctions in a series of coordinate words, phrases, or clauses. “Nor stony tower, nor walls of beaten brass, / Nor airless dungeon, nor strong links of iron, / Can be retentive to the strength of spirit.” Julius Caesar, 1.3.92.  See Asyndeton, which omits all conjunctions between words or phrases in a series.

Polysyndeton is an example of:
Repetition

Proparalepsis

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Adding an extra syllable or letters to the end of a word.

Prosopopoeia

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Form of personification in which an inanimate object gains the ability to speak.

Prosopopoeia is an example of:
Substitution

Prosthesis

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Adding an extra syllable or letters to the beginning of a word.

Pun

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A play on words, sometimes on different senses of the same word and sometimes on the similar sense or sound of different words.

Pun is an example of:
Substitution, Word Play

Quaesitio

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Several questions spoken or written one after another.

Rhetorical Question

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A question whose answer is so obvious that an answer is not expected. “For who so firm that cannot be seduc'd?” Julius Caesar, 1.2.320. Also see Rogatio.

Rhetorical Question is an example of:
Omission, Substitution

Rhyme

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Rhyme is an example of:
Repetition

Rogatio

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Rogatio occurs when a person asking a Rhetorical Question immediately answers it. “Can honor set to a leg? No. Or an arm? No. Or take away the grief of a wound? No. Honor hath no skill in surgery, then? No.” Henry VI Pt 1, 5.1.122.” Also called Hypophora.

Simile

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Explicit comparison between two things using “like” or “as”.

Simile is an example of:
Comparison

Stichomythia

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Formalized dialogue in short, alternating lines.

Syllepsis

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A single word governs or modifies two or more others and must be understood differently with respect to each of those words. A combination of grammatical parallelism and semantic incongruity, often with a witty or comical effect; type of Paronomasia where two or more of a word's meanings are invoked.

Symploce

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Sentence is basically repeated, with one or two words in the middle changed, e.g. Saint Paul wrote, “Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they the seed of Abraham? So am I,” (2 Corinthians 11:22)

Symploce is an example of:
Repetition

Syncope

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Deleting a syllable or letter from the middle of a word. “Let's make us med'cines of our great revenge.” Macbeth, 4.3.252. See Aphaearsis, the deletion of an unstressed initial vowel at the end of a word. and Apocope, the deletion of a syllable or letter from the end of a word.

Syncope is an example of:
Omission

Synecdoche

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This is a specific type of metaphor in which a part of an object or person is used for the whole, or conversely the whole for the part. For example, in “Who's got the wheels to get us to the movie?”, “wheels” refers to a car. Conversely, in “I'm going to get the car tuned up,” “car” refers to the engine. This is different from metonymy, which substitutes a related attribute rather than a part of a thing or person. In “Uneasy lies the head that wears the crown,” “head” is a synecdoche and crown is a metonymy.

Synecdoche is an example of:
Substitution

Synesthesia

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Mixing one type of sensory input with another in an impossible way, such as speaking of how a color sounds, or how a smell looks.

Synomia

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List of synonyms for emphasis.

Transferred Epithet

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Adjective which should properly modify one word is shifted to another word in the same sentence. “The fearful passage of their death-mark'd love,” Romeo and Juliet, 1P.1

Transferred Epithet is an example of:
Arrangement, Substitution

Tsmesis

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Intentionally breaking a word into two parts for emphasis.

Zeugma

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Repetition of a verb but with different meanings or objects (part of speech).